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Solved Paper of CS Preliminary 2014 Paper II (General Study) Exam

Directions for the following 8 (eight) items:

Read the following two passages and answer the items that follow each passage. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.

Passage - 1

The Himalayan ecosystem is highly vulnerable to damage, both due to geological reasons and on account of the stress caused by increased pressure of population, exploitation of natural resources and other related challenges. These aspects may be exacerbated due to the impact of climate change. It is possible that climate change may adversely impact the Himalayan ecosystem through increased temperature altered precipitation patterns, episodes of drought and biotic influences.

This would not only impact the very sustenance of the indigenous communities in uplands but also the life of downstream dwellers across the country and beyond.

Therefore, there is an urgent need for giving special attention to sustain the Himalayan ecosystem. This would require conscious efforts for conserving all the representative systems.

Further, it needs to be emphasized that the endemics with restricted distribution, and most often with specialized habitat requirements, are among the most vulnerable elements. In this respect the Himalayan biodiversity hotspot, with rich endemic diversity, is vulnerable to climate change.

The Threats include possible loss of genetic resources and species, habitats and concomitantly a decrease in ecosystem services. Therefore, conservation of endemic elements in representative ecosystems/habitats assumes a great significance while drawing conservation plans for the region.

Towards achieving the above, we will have to shift towards contemporary conservation approaches, which include a paradigm of landscape level interconnectivity between protected area systems. The concept advocates a shift from the species-habitat focus to an inclusive focus on expanding the biogeographic range so that natural adjustments to climate change can proceed without being restrictive.

1. Consider the following statements:

According to the passage, the adverse impact of climate change on an ecosystem can be a
1. Permanent disappearance of some of its flora and fauna.
2. Permanent disappearance of ecosystem itself.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

2. Which one of the following statements best implies the need to shift toward contemporary conservation approach?

(a) Exploitation of natural resources causes a stress on the Himalayan ecosystem
(b) Climate change alters precipitation patterns, causes episodes of drought and biotic interference
(c) The rich biodiversity, including endemic diversity, makes the Himalayan region a biodiversity hotspot
(d) The Himalayan biogeographic region should be enabled to adapt to climate change smoothly

3. What is the most important message conveyed by the passage?

(a) Endemism is a characteristic feature of Himalayan region
(b) Conservation efforts should emphasize on biogeographic ranges rather than on some species or habitats
(c) Climate change has adverse impact on the Himalayan ecosystem
(d) Without Himalayan ecosystem, the life of the communities of uplands and downstream will have no sustenance
4. With reference to the passage, the following assumptions have been made:

1. To maintain natural ecosystems, exploitation of natural resources should be completely avoided
2. Not only anthropogenic but also natural reasons can adversely affect ecosystems
3. Loss of endemic diversity leads to the extinction of ecosystems
Which of the above assumptions is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 3 only

Passage - 2

It is often forgotten that globalization, is not only about policies on international economic relationships and transactions, but has equally to do with domestic policies of a nation. Policy changes necessitated by meeting the internationally set conditions (by WTO etc.) of free trade and investment flows obviously affect domestic producers and investors. But the basic philosophy underlying globalization emphasizes absolute freedom to markets to determine prices and production and distribution patterns, and view government interventions as processes that create distortions and bring in inefficieney.Thus, public enterprises have to be privatized through disinvestments and sales; sectors and activities hitherto reserved for the public sector have to be opened to the private sector. This logic extends to the social services like education and health. Any restrictions on the adjustments in workforce by way of retrenchment of workers should also be removed and exit should be made easier by removing any restrictions on closures.

Employment and wages should be governed by free play of market forces, as any measure to regulate them can discourage investment and also create inefficiency in production. Above all, in line with the overall philosophy of reduction in the role of the state, fiscal reforms should be undertaken to have generally low levels of taxation and government expenditure should be kept to the minimum to abide by the principle of fiscal prudence. All these are policy actions on the domestic front and are not directly related to the core items of the globalization agenda, namely free international flow of goods and finance. 5. According to the passage, under the globalization, government interventions are viewed as processes leading to

(a) distortions and inefficiency in the economy
(b) optimum use of resources
(c) more profitability to industries
(d) free play of market forces with regard to the industries

6. According to the passage, the basic philosophy of globalization is to (a) give absolute freedom to producers to determine prices and production

(b) give freedom to producers to evolve distribution patterns
(c) give absolute freedom to markets to determine prices, production and employment
(d) give freedom to producers to import and export

7. According to the passage, which of the following is/are necessary for ensuring globalization?

1. Privatization of public enterprises
2. Expansionary policy of public expenditure
3. Free play of market forces to determine wages and employment
4. Privatization of social services like education and health
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4
(d) 2, 3 and 4

8. According to the passage, in the process globalization the State should have

(a) expanding role
(b) reducing role
(c) statutory role
(d) none of the above roles

Directions for the following 4 (four) items:
The following graph shows the average profit of two fruit-sellers A and B in thousands (Rs.) per year from the year 1995 to 2000.
Consider the graph and answer the 4 (four) items that follow:

9. In which year is the average profit of A and B same?

(a) 1995
(b) 1996
(c) 1997
(d) 1998

10. What is the difference between the average profit of B and A in the year 1998?

(a) - Rs. 100
(b) - Rs. 1,000
(c) + Rs. 600
(d) - Rs. 300