Model Test Paper 21

General Study Paper II

Even in the midst of its resurgence as a vital tradition, many sociologists have viewed the current form of the powwow, a ceremonial gathering of native Americans, as a sign that tribal culture is in decline. Focusing on the dances and rituals that have recently come to be shared by most tribes, they suggest that an intertribal movement is now in ascension and claim the inevitable outcome of this tendency is the eventual dissolution of tribes and the complete assimilation of native Americans into Euroamerican society. Proponents of this “Pan-Indian” theory point to the greater frequency of travel and communication between reservations, the greater urbanization of native Americans, and, most recently, their increasing politicization in response to common grievances as the chief causes of the shift toward intertribalism.

Indeed, the rapid diffusion of dance styles, outfits, and songs from one reservation to another offers compelling evidence that intertribalism has been increasing. However, these sociologists have failed to note the concurrent revitalization of many traditions unique to individual tribes. Among the Lakota, for instance, the Sun Dance was revived, after a forty-year hiatus, during the 1950s. Similarly, the Black Legging Society of the Kiowa and the Hethuska Society of the Ponca—both traditional groups within their respective tribes—have gained new popularity. Obviously, a more complex societal shift is taking place than the theory of Pan-Indianism can account for.

An examination of the theory’s underpinnings may be critical at this point, especially given that native Americans themselves chafe most against the Pan-Indian classification. Like other assimilationist theories with which it is associated, the Pan-Indian view is predicted upon an a priori assumption about the nature of cultural contact: that upon contact minority societies immediately begin to succumb in every respect—biologically, linguistically, and culturally—to the majority society. However, there is no evidence that this is happening to native American groups.Yet the fact remains that intertribal activities are a major facet of native American cultural today. Certain dances at powwows, for instance, are announced as intertribal, others as traditional. Likewise, speeches given at the beginnings of powwows are often delivered in English, while the prayer that follows is usually spoken in a native language. Cultural borrowing is, of course, old news. What is important to note is the conscious distinction native Americans make between tribal and intertribal tendencies.

Tribalism, although greatly altered by modern history, remains a potent force among native Americans. It forms a basis for tribal identity, and aligns music and dance with other social and cultural activities important to individual tribes. Intertribal activities, on the other hand, reinforce native American identity along a broader front, where this identity is directly threatened by outside influences.

1. Which one of the following best summarizes the main idea of the passage?

(a) Despite the fact that sociologists have only recently begun to understand its importance, intertribalism has always been an influential factor in native American culture
(b) Native Americans are currently struggling with an identity crisis caused primarily by the two competing forces of tribalism and intertribalism.
(c) The recent growth of intertribalism is unlikely to eliminate tribalism because the two forces do not oppose one another but instead reinforce distinct elements of native American interact with the broader community around them.
(d) The tendency toward intertribalism, although prevalent within native American culture, has had a minimal effect on the way native Americans interact with the broader community around them.

2. The author most likely states that “cultural borrowing is of course, old news” primarily to

(a) acknowledge that in itself the existence of intertribal tendencies at powwows is unsurprising
(b) suggest that native Americans’ use of English in powwows should be accepted as unavoidable
(c) argue that the deliberate distinction of intertribal and traditional dances is not a recent development
(d) indicate that the powwow itself could have originated by combining practices drawn from both native and non-native American cultures

3. The author of the passage would most likely agree with which one of the following assertions?

(a) Though some believe the current form of the powwow signals the decline of tribal culture, the powwow contains elements that indicate the continuing strength of tribalism.
(b) The logical outcome of the recent increase in intertribal activity is the eventual disappearance of tribal culture.
(c) Native Americans who participate in both tribal and intertribal activities usually base their identities on intertribal rather than tribal affiliations.
(d) The conclusions of some sociologists about the health of native American cultures show that these sociologists are in fact biased against such cultures

4. The primary function of the third paragraph is to

(a) search for evidence to corroborate the basic assumption of the theory of Pan-Indianism
(b) demonstrate the incorrectness of the theory of Pan-Indianism by pointing out that native American groups themselves disagree with the theory
(c) explain the origin of the theory of Pan-Indianism by showing how it evolved from other assimilationist theories
(d) examine several assimilationist theories in order to demonstrate that they rest on a common assumption

5. Which one of the following most accurately describes the author’s attitude towards the theory of Pan-Indianism?

(a) critical of its tendency to attribute political motives to cultural practices
(b) discomfort at its negative characterization of cultural borrowing by native Americans
(c) hopeful about its chance for preserving tribal culture
(d) skeptical that it is a complete explanation of recent changes in native American society

6. With which one of the following statements would the author of the passage be most likely to agree? (Intertribal activities, on the other hand, reinforce native American identity along a broader front, where this identity is directly threatened by outside influences.)

(a) The resurgence of the powwow is a sign that native American customs are beginning to have an important influence on Euroamerican society.
(b) Although native Americans draw conscious distinctions between tribal and intertribal activities, there is no difference in how the two types of activity actually function within the context of native American society.
(c) Without intertribal activities, it would be more difficult for native Americans to maintain the cultural differences between native American and Euroamerican society.
(d) The degree of urbanization, intertribal communication, and politicization among native Americans has been exaggerated by proponents of the theory of Pan-Indianism.

7. Which one of the following situations most clearly illustrates the phenomenon of intertribalism, as that phenomenon is described in the passage?

(a) a native American tribe in which a number of powerful societies attempt to prevent the revival of a traditional dance
(b) a native American tribe whose members attempt to learn the native languages of several other tribes
(c) a native American tribe whose members attempt to form a political organization in order to redress several grievances important to that tribe
(d) a native American tribe in which a significant percentage of the members have forsake their tribal identity and become assimilated into Euroamerican society

8. In the passage, the author is primarily concerned with doing which one of the following?

(a) identifying an assumption common to various assimilationist theories and then criticizing these theories by showing this assumption to be false
(b) arguing that the recent revival of a number of tribal practices shows sociologists are mistaken in believing intertribilism to be a potent force among native American societies
(c) questioning the belief that native American societies will eventually be assimilated into Euroamerican society by arguing that intertribalism helps strengthen native American identity
(d) showing how the recent resurgence of tribal activities is a deliberate attempt to counteract the growing influence of intertribalism
Most workers in the UK over the age of 16 are legally entitled to a minimum rate of pay, called the minimum wage. An independent body called the Low Pay Commission (LPC) each year reviews the rate and recommends to the government what it should be. With few exceptions, the minimum wage is the same for all types of work and all kinds of business. The current amount for people over 22 years of age is £5.73 an hour. The rates for younger workers are less. However, the following groups are not entitled to receive the minimum wage: workers under school leaving age, the genuinely self-employed, some apprentices, au pairs, armed service personnel and voluntary workers. Also agricultural workers have separate rates of pay set by the Agricultural Wages Board.

9. The Low Pay Commission sets the rate of the minimum wage each year

(a) True
(b) False
(c) Cannot say
(d)

10. The Agricultural Wages Board sets the rates for agricultural workers

(a) True
(b) False
(c) Cannot say
(d)

11. The minimum wage for all workers of 16 years old is 5.73 pounds an hour

(a) True
(b) Fasle
(c) Cannot say
(d)

12. All au pairs receive less than the minimum wage

(a) True
(b) False
(c) Cannot say
(d)
Outsourcing – purchasing services from an external supplier rather than performing the work internally – is a popular but politically sensitive means of cutting costs. There has been an increasing use of third parties for HR functions, such as managing payroll and other employee data, and for traditional Finance functions, such as invoice services. The manufacture of goods has even become part of this trend; though the design function is typically kept in-house. Third party call centre operatives can offer customer service expertise that may be more expensive to provide in-house. “Offshoring”, when functions are moved abroad, often to India or China, where the average wage is considerably lower raises job protection issues. The potential profits from outsourcing operations encourage underdeveloped countries to invest in the necessary educational infrastructure and skills training that are required to support such business. Still, higher corporate profits may be seen to be at the expense of low-wage economies, and the cost benefits are not always passed on to the consumer. Additionally the consumer may not benefit from an improved quality of customer service. Outsourcing decreases prices in another way – the competitive marketplace in which service providers companies operate gets squeezed.

13. Offshoring is synonymous with outsourcing

(a) True
(b) False
(c) Cannot say
(d)

14. Low wage countries may need to enhance their infrastructure to attract outsourcing contracts

(a) True
(b) False
(c) Cannot say
(d)

15. Outsourcing providers compete aggressively for client contracts

(a) True
(b) False
(c) Cannot say
(d)

16. The outsourcing trend has led to a reduction in the cost of consumer goods

(a) True
(b) False
(c) Cannot say
(d)

17. Outsourcing refers to the use of a third party supplier to provide either HR or Finance functions

(a) True
(b) False
(c) Cannot say
(d)
Hydrogen-fuelled cars are not reliant upon petrol or diesel, which potentially makes them safer. Hydrogen fuel can be produced from renewable sources, such as wind or solar power, and does not have the ordinary car’s dependency on burning fossil fuels. Since cars account for roughly a third of greenhouse gas emissions, these futuristic vehicles could form part of an effective strategy to combat global warming. This is an idealistic scenario and there are many barriers to be overcome first. The existing designs for hydrogen fuelled cars are extremely expensive. The National Research Association also estimates that £8 billion would be needed to set-up the refuelling stations required by hydrogen-fuelled cars. For a mass market product to be developed there needs to be increased cooperation between governments and industry to allow the infrastructure to lead the manufacture. In fact, hybrid and hybrid-electric car designs may prove to be a more worthwhile long-term investment for governments. Compared to ordinary cars, hybrids emit reduced levels of carbon dioxide, whereas hydrogen-fuelled cars emit only water and so are 100% clean.

18. The first hydrogen-fuelled car was too expensive for consumers

(a) True
(b) False
(c) Cannot say
(d)

19. The passage questions the viability of hydrogen-fuelled cars as a solution to global warming

(a) True
(b) False
(c) Cannot say
(d)

20. High infrastructure costs have deterred the manufacture of hydrogen-fuelled cars

(a) True
(b) False
(c) Cannot say
(d)

21. Hybrids are the cleanest form of transport

(a) True
(b) False
(c) Cannot say
(d)

22. Hydrogen is universally available and is not a greenhouse gas

(a) True
(b) False
(c) Cannot say
(d)

23.

(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D

24.

(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D

25.

(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D

26.

(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D

27.

(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D

28.

(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D

29.

(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D

30.

(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D

31.

(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D

32.

(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D

33.

(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D

34. Look at this series: 664, 332, 340, 170, __, 89, . . . What number should fill the blank?

(a) 85
(b) 97
(c) 109
(d) 178

35. Look at this series: 0.15, 0.3, __, 1.2, 2.4, . . . What number should fill the blank?

(a) 4.8
(b) 0.006
(c) 0.6
(d) 0.9

36. Choose the word that is a necessary part of: provisions

(a) groceries
(b) supplies
(c) gear
(d) caterers

37. Choose the word that is a necessary part of: purchase

(a) trade
(b) money
(c) bank
(d) acquisition

38. Choose the word that is a necessary part of: dome

(a) rounded
(b) geodesic
(c) governmental
(d) coppery

39. Choose the word that is a necessary part of: recipe

(a) desserts
(b) directions
(c) cookbook
(d) utensils

40. Choose the word that is a necessary part of: hurricane

(a) beach
(b) cyclone
(c) damage
(d) wind
The questions from 41 to 46 contain short logic problems. Each problem consists of three statements. Based on the first two statements, the third statement may be true, false, or uncertain. Logic problems may appear daunting at first. However, solving these problems can be done in the most straightforward way. Simply translate the abstract relationships in the questions into real-world relationships, so you can see the facts more clearly. For example, if the problem is comparing the ages of three people, make a chart and list the names of the people and their possible ages according to the information given. Or, create a diagram using symbols to represent phrases like “older than” or “greater than.”

41. Tanya is older than Eric.
Cliff is older than Tanya.
Eric is older than Cliff.
If the first two statements are true, the third statement is

(a) true
(b) false
(c) uncertain
(d)

42. During the past year, Josh saw more movies than Stephen.
Stephen saw fewer movies than Darren.
Darren saw more movies than Josh.
If the first two statements are true, the third statement is

(a) true
(b) false
(c) uncertain
(d)

43. All the offices on the 9th floor have wall-towall carpeting.
No wall-to-wall carpeting is pink.
None of the offices on the 9th floor has pink wall-to-wall carpeting.
If the first two statements are true, the third statement is

(a) true
(b) false
(c) uncertain
(d)

44. Class A has a higher enrollment than Class B.
Class C has a lower enrollment than Class B.
Class A has a lower enrollment than Class C.
If the first two statements are true, the third statement is

(a) true
(b) false
(c) uncertain
(d)

45. Rover weighs less than Fido.
Rover weighs more than Boomer.
Of the three dogs, Boomer weighs the least.
If the first two statements are true, the third statement is

(a) true
(b) false
(c) uncertain
(d)

46. All the trees in the park are flowering trees.
Some of the trees in the park are dogwoods.
All dogwoods are flowering trees.
If the first two statements are true, the third statement is

(a) true
(b) false
(c) uncertain
(d)

47. If y ¤ x = y2x for all positive integers, then (3 ¤ 4) ¤ 2 =

(a) 38
(b) 312
(c) 316
(d) 332

48. The first term in a sequence is 1 and the second term is 5. From the third term on each term is the average (arithmetic mean) of all preceding terms. What is the 25th term in the sequence?

(a) 2.5
(b) 3
(c) 5
(d) 25

49.

The solid brick shown is made of small bricks of side 1. When the large brick is disassembled into its component small bricks, the total surface area of all the small bricks is how much greater than the surface area of the large brick?

(a) 32
(b) 40
(c) 60
(d) 72

50. (3x + 2) (2x - 5) = ax² + kx + n . What is the value of a - n + k ?

(a) 5
(b) 8
(c) 9
(d) 10

51. A straight fence is to be constructed from posts 6 inches wide and separated by lengths of chain 5 feet long. If a certain fence begins and ends with a post, which of the following could not be the length of the fence in feet? (12 inches = 1 foot)

(a) 17
(b) 28
(c) 35
(d) 39

52. In which year was the combined number of fatalities and serious injuries greatest?

(a) 2001
(b) 2002
(c) 2004
(d) 2005

53. Which year showed the greatest decrease in the number of serious injuries over the previous year?

(a) 2003
(b) 2004
(c) 2005
(d) 2006

54. What is the average (mean) number of fatalities over the eight years?

(a) 58
(b) 59.25
(c) 60.5
(d) 61

55. If , then

(a) -0.57
(b) -0.43
(c) 0.57
(d) 0.43

56. A line has parametric equations x=5+t and y=7+t, where t is the parameter. The slope of the line is

(a) 5/7
(b) 1
(c) 7+t/5+t
(d) 7/5

57. What is the range of the function defined by f(x)=1/x+2?

(a) All real numbers
(b) All real numbers except 1/2
(c) All real numbers except 0
(d) All real numbers except 2

58.

The right circular cone above is sliced horizontally forming two pieces, each of which has the same height. What is the ratio of the volume of the smaller piece to the volume of the larger piece?

(a) 1/2
(b) 1/3
(c) 1/6
(d) 1/7

59.

In the figure above, ABCDE is a regular pentagon with side of length 2. What is the x-coordinate of D?

(a) 2.62
(b) 3.62
(c) 3.73
(d) 3.90

60. For a class test, the mean score was , the median score was , and the standard deviation of the scores was . The teacher decided to add points to each score due to a grading error. Which of the following statements must be true for the new scores?

I. The new mean score is .
II. The new median score is .
III. The new standard deviation of the scores is .

(a) None
(b) I only
(c) II only
(d) I and II only

61. A game has two spinners. For the first spinner, the probability of landing on blue is 4/5. Independently, for the second spinner, the probability of landing on blue is 1/7 What is the probability that the first spinner lands on blue and the second spinner does not land on blue?

(a) 1/35
(b) 4/35
(c) 6/35
(d) 24/35

62. In January 1990 the world’s population was 5.3 billion. Assuming a growth rate of 2 percent per year, the world’s population, in billions, for t years after 1990 can be modeled by the equation P=5.3(1.02)t. According to the model, the population growth from January 1995 to January 1996 was

(a) 106,000,000
(b) 114,700,000
(c) 117,000,000
(d) 445,600,000

63. What is the measure of one of the larger angles of a parallelogram in the xy-plane that has vertices with coordinates (2,1), (5,1), (3,5) and (6,5)?

(a) 93.4o
(b) 96.8o
(c) 104.0o
(d) 108.3o

64. For some real number t, the first three terms of an arithmetic sequence are 2t, 5t-1, and 6t+2. What is the numerical value of the fourth term?

(a) 4
(b) 8
(c) 10
(d) 19

65. In a group of 10 people, 60 percent have brown eyes. Two people are to be selected at random from the group. What is the probability that neither person selected will have brown eyes?

(a) 0.13
(b) 0.16
(c) 0.25
(d) 0.36

66. If , what is ?

(a) 3.4
(b) 2.4
(c) 1.6
(d) 1.3

67. Find the equation of a circle whose center is at the point (-2 , 3) and its diameter has a length of 10

(a) (x - 2) 2 + (y - 3) 2 = 25
(b) (x + 2) 2 + (y + 3) 2 = 25
(c) (x + 2) 2 + (y - 3) 2 = 25
(d) (x + 2) 2 + (y - 3) 2 = 100

68. Find the center and the radius of the circle whose equation is given by x 2 + 4x + y 2 - 8y = 5.

(a) center (-2 , -4) and radius 5
(b) center (2 , 4) and radius 5
(c) center (-2 , 4) and radius 5
(d) center (-2 , 4) and radius 10

Answer the questions 69-72 on the basis of the following histogram

which shows the heights (in cm) distribution of 30 people.

69. How many people have heights between 159.5 and 169.5 cm?

(a) 6
(b) 7
(c) 13
(d) 22

70. How many people have heights less than 159.5 cm?

(a) 6
(b) 9
(c) 15
(d) 22

71. How many people have heights more than 169.5 cm?

(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 5
(d) 8

72. What percentage of people have heights between 149.5 and 179.5 cm?

(a) 30%
(b) 40%
(c) 50%
(d) 70%

73. Two dice are thrown simultaneously. Find the probability of getting An even number as the sum

(a) 1/2
(b) 1/3
(c) 1/4
(d) 1/5

74. Two dice are thrown simultaneously. Find the probability of getting A prime number as the sum

(a) 4/12
(b) 5/12
(c) 1/2
(d) 7/12

75. Two dice are thrown simultaneously. Find the probability of getting A multiple of ‘3’ as the sum

(a) 1/2
(b) 1/3
(c) 1/4
(d) 1/5

76. Look at this series: 70, 71, 76, __, 81, 86, 70, 91, . . . What number should fill the blank?

(a) 70
(b) 71
(c) 80
(d) 96

77. Two dice are thrown simultaneously. Find the probability of getting A doublet of even numbers

(a) 1/9
(b) 1/10
(c) 1/11
(d) 1/12

78. A box contains 12 bulbs of which ‘4’ are defective. All bulbs took alike. Three bulbs are drawn randomly.
What is the probability that :all the ‘3’ bulbs are defective

(a) 1/52
(b) 1/53
(c) 1/54
(d) 1/55

79. Determine the probability that a randomly selected number between one and ten (including one and ten) is a factor of 24.

(a) 1/4
(b) 1/2
(c) 3/5
(d) 1/3

80. A couple has two children. At least one of them is male. What is the probability that one child is female, assuming the probability of having either sex is equal?

(a) 3/4
(b) 1/4
(c) 1/2
(d) 2/3

TOTAL

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